Ahmed M Fouad
Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
*Corresponding author: Ahmed M. Fouad, Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA.
Received: June 25, 2019
Published: September 30, 2019
The acid-mediated tumor invasion hypothesis proposes that altered glucose metabolism exhibited by the vast majority of tumors leads to increased acid (H+ ion) production which subsequently facilitates tumor invasion [1-3]. The reaction-diffusion model  that captures the key elements of the hypothesis shows how the densities of normal cells, tumor cells, and excess H+ ions change with time due to both chemical reactions between these three populations and density-dependent diffusion by which they spread out in three-dimensional space. Moreover, it proposes that each cell has an optimal pH for survival; that is, if the local pH deviates from the optimal value in either an acidic or alkaline direction, the cells begin to die, and that the death rate saturates at some maximum value when the microenvironment is extremely acidic or alkaline. We have previously studied in detail how the death-rate functions of the normal and tumor populations depend upon the H+ ion density . Here, we extend previous work by investigating how the equilibrium densities (at which the time rates of change of the cellular densities are equal to zero) reached by the normal and tumor populations in three-dimensional space are affected by the presence of the H+ ions, and we present detailed analytical and computational techniques to analyze the dynamical stability of these equilibrium densities. For a sample set of biological input parameters and within the acid-mediation hypothesis, our model predicts the transformation to a malignant behavior, as indicated by the presence of unstable sets of equilibrium densities.
KEYWORDS: Dynamical Stability Analysis; Fixed Points: Cancer Biology; Acid-Mediated Tumor invasion; Reaction-Diffusion Systems; Partial Differential Equations.