Laura Nunez-Naveira1,2, Carmen Montero-Martinez2, Luis Antonio Marinas-Pardo1,2*
1Biomedical Research Institute of A Coruna (INIBIC), Xubias de Arriba, A Coruna, Spain
2Hospital Universitario A Coruna (CHUAC), Xubias de Arriba, A Coruna, Spain
*Corresponding Author: Luis Antonio Marinas-Pardo, University Hospital Complex of A Coruna (CHUAC). As Xubias de Arriba, 84. PC 15006, A Coruna, Spain.
Received: June 7, 2019
Published: July 30, 2019
Background: Angiogenesis is regulated by angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) that may be deregulated in lung cancer. The aim of this study was to find out a pattern of VEGF and bFGF protein expression in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and serum of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and healthy volunteers (smokers and non-smokers) to obtain early diagnostic values to discriminate initial stages of disease.
Methods: EBC samples were taken using the EcoScreen device. Protein expression was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in serum, plasma or EBC from 25 NSCLC patients, 32 healthy smokers and 38 healthy non-smokers. Youden index was used to determine a cut-off value for each marker.
Results: VEGF expression was higher in NSCLC compared to controls in serum (p<0.005) and EBC (p<0.05) samples. bFGF expression in plasma was also higher in NSCLC (p<0.05). Serum VEGF and plasma bFGF correlated positively (R2=0.4687; p<0.05). bFGF values over the cut-off were a bad prognosis factor for overall survival in NSCLC patients (p<0.05).
Conclusion: VEGF and bFGF expression in blood correlated positively and VEGF could be detected in EBC. The cut-off value for bFGF allowed the identification of patients with higher overall mortality and poor prognosis, independently of age, sex or smoking habit. Considering that bFGF expression seems to be more important in SSC, anti-angiogenic therapy should be selected depending on the histology of the disease.
Keywords: Basic fibroblast growth factor, Biomarker, Exhaled breath condensate, Non-small cell lung cancer, Vascular endothelial growth factor