Sarah Waleed Hashim1, Rasha Zaki Shukur1*, Haider Mohammed Jaafer2, Khudeir Jasim Al-Rawaq3
1Radiation Oncologist, Al-Amal National Hospital, Baghdad Medical City Complex, Ministry of Health/ Environment, Baghdad, Iraq
2Family Medicine Specialty, Primary Health Care Center, Ministry of Health/ Environment, Baghdad, Iraq 3Assistant Professor, Clinical Radiation Oncology, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq
3Assistant Professor, Clinical Radiation Oncology, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq
Corresponding author: Rasha Zaki Shukur Al-Amal National Hospital, Baghdad Medical City Complex, Ministry of Health/ Environment, Baghdad 10007, Iraq.
Received : October 18, 2019
Published : November 21, 2019
Background: Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women; median age at diagnosis is 63 years. It is highly curable if diagnosed at an early stage, but 75% of its present with stage III or IV disease. Many risk factors have been identified for ovarian cancer like the lifetime ovulatory cycles. The study aimed to define the different presenting signs and symptoms for ovarian cancer, outline the main risk factors responsible for ovarian cancer, and discuss the important points helpful for the prevention and decrease incidence.
Methods: This retrospective study which included 31 female patients already diagnosed with ovarian cancers and they attended the Alamal National Hospital at period between September 2012 to June 2013. The patients were assessed for the presenting features of the disease and major risk factors of ovarian cancer.
Results: There were 15 patients with age less than 50 years and 16 women belong to age 50 years and above. Regarding parity, 10 women were nullipara and 21 were multipara. Three patients only have a positive family history of breast cancer. 13 patients had a history of using hormonal drugs during their life time before they had the ovarian cancer. As a presenting sign and symptom; 14 patients presented with ascites, 10 with mass, 7 with vaginal bleeding and 16 with pain. At the time of diagnosis 17 patients presented with distant metastatic disease.
Conclusions: The incidence of ovarian cancer is mainly at age group of ≥ 50 years. Nulliparity is considered a risk factor for the development of ovarian cancer, in addition to family history after increasing age. The use of oral contraceptive pills is considered a protective factor against the development of ovarian cancer. Most of the cases presented in advanced stage at time of diagnosis. Epithelial tumors comprise the most common type of ovarian cancer and of which serous subtype considered the main subtype.
Keywords: Ovarian Cancer; Vaginal Bleeding; Nullipara; Serous Epithelial Tumors; Ovulatory Cycles.